The Brotherhood of Light Lessons by C.C. Zain

? The Brotherhood of Light Lessons by C.C. Zain
? The Brotherhood of Light Lessons by C.C. Zain
The late C.C. Zain (Elbert Benjamine), one of the most prolific astrological writers of the 20th century, wrote over 50 books and thousands of magazine articles. A scholar, who mastered every physical science of his time, he brought this same vigor to his exploration of the metaphysical sciences.

He was born a natural psychic and seer. As a youngster his heightened awareness brought him into contact with those who had passed from this plane to the next. In some cases he was able to counsel those in need of adjustment to their new living conditions – both here and on the next plane. In the autumn of 1898, he began his esoteric studies. By 1900 he had contacted The Brotherhood of Light and began serious study of astrology. In the spring of 1910 he gave his promise to write the 21 Brotherhood of Light courses.

From that time until his death, he devoted his energy and personal resources to writing the lessons and to establishing the vehicle for disseminating The Brotherhood of Light teachings — The Church of Light.

The scope of his work is so vast that the impact of his influence is perhaps little understood at the present. However, as the Aquarian Age consciousness evolves, his genius will become more widely understood. It is no wonder that students world-wide are benefiting from Brotherhood of Light Home Study Courses and that his works continue to be in great demand.
Below you will find:
(1) a list of the 21 Brotherhood of Light Volumes
(2) a list of the 210 Serial Lessons by Lesson Number which comprise the 21 Courses
– These equal a total of 24 Books
– The individual lessons are not necessarily in the order they appear in the books
(3) a cross- reference of the 210 Lessons by Volume Number

The 21 Brotherhood of Light Courses of Lessons
in link
The Brotherhood of Light Lessons

The Left Hand Path

? The Left Hand Path ? The Left Hand PathThe Left Hand PathThe Left Hand Path
The Left Hand Path is solitary, individualistic, personal, based on self development, self analysis, self empowerment. Altruism is materialistically equated as long term selfishness. I think all forms of Satanism are considered Left Hand Path, even Devil Worship and inverse Christian-Satanists are Left Hand Path, although they are frequently considered deluded. Frequently called “evil” and “dark” by non Satanic religions, the followers of the left hand path often have had to remain in the darkness or face severe persecution from the religions that ironically call themselves “good”. This is testimony enough that the image of the purely “good” icons is a veneer; a non-truth.

Features of LHP philosophies frequently include:

Emphasis on freethought, not dogma or strict systems.
Highly individualistic.
A distinct rejection of absolutes and moralism.
Personal, not universal.
Freethought, Individualism and moral relativism
Left Hand Path philosophies all have an emphasis on freethought; not dogma or strict systems. The “rules” in LHP religions are frequently merely “guidelines”. The same attitude is applied to all knowledge, including that of the knowledge of reality and morals. Subjectivism and relativism are almost universally assumed amongst followers of the left hand path.

Personal Belief, not Universal
Left Hand Path philosophies do not claim that they are the best religion for all people and frequently claim they are only a valid religion for some people. “Satanists are born, not made” LaVey. Satanism and the LHP is striking for the lack of missionizing. This is probably the result of the admission that no religion, philosophy or belief system is suitable for all people.

Book Cover“The term ‘Left-Hand Path’ has become an umbrella term of self-designation used by certain contemporary ritual magicians and is usually taken to incorporate practitioners of Thelemic magick (beginning with Aleister Crowley), Tantrik magick, and Chaos Magick (inspired by both Crowley and the magickal techniques devised by the occult artist Austin O. Spare, 1886- 1956). The notion of the Left-Hand Path is derived from the Tantric term vama-marga (‘left-path’), i.e., the Left-Hand Path in Tantrism. […] Its usage represents a deliberate attempt by Left-Hand Path magicians to transcend the outmoded and value-laden dichotomy of ‘black’ versus ‘white’ magic […] because it is held to reflect the ‘moronic oversimplicity of the Judeo-Xtian distinction between good and evil’.”
“Left-Hand Path Ritual Magick” by Richard Sutcliffe
In “Pagan Pathways” by Graham Harvey & Charlotte Hardman (1995) [Book Review]1
Kennet Granholm writes on the features of left-hand-path religions in his chapter in “Contemporary Religious Satanism” by Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2009)2:

The Ideology of Individualism: ‘The individual and his/her spiritual development is the primary concern in Left-Hand Path spiritualities, even with individuals operating in groups. […] It could be argued that most or all esoteric traditions throughout history have been individualistic in character. However, the distinction with Left-Hand Path spiritualities is that this individualism is raised to the level of explicit ideology’2.

The View of Man as a Psycho-physical Totality: In other words, there is no dualism. ‘The essence of man is considered to be both physical and psychic, and any absolute separation of these spheres is considered unsound, reductionist, or even impossible’2. See “The Satanic Mind is Balanced” by Vexen Crabtree (2002).

The Appraisal of Life in the Here-and-now: ‘The focus of Left-Hand Path spiritualities is on corporeal existence in the present, not on an afterlife. All aspects of life are valued, even its destructive aspects. […] Moderate to extreme hedonism is advocated’2. See “The Religion of the Flesh” by Vexen Crabtree (2002).

An Antinomian Stance: ‘Collective religious and cultural norms are questioned in the pursuit of individualized ethics and spiritual evolution. The magician seeks to abandon his/her culturally given set of ethics, and adopt personal and individualized ones’2. See “Satanism and Elitism: The Alien Elite: 2.1. Culture: Rise Above Culture” by Vexen Crabtree (2002).

The Goal of Self-Deification: Granholm starts off sensibly with these words: ”On the one side of the continuum we find psychological interpretations in which self-deification signifies assuming total control over one’s own personal existential universe’. See “Masters Of Existence: Subjectivism and Self Worship in Satanism” by Vexen Crabtree (2010) for a full explanation of this type of thing in Satanism. Granholm then takes us off firmly into la-la-land with the second half of his text on apotheosis: ‘On the other side we find purely metaphysical interpretations in which the practitioner is thought to become an actual god’. I would hope very much that Granholm has not found a single practitioner who actually holds to the belief that their path results in such an outcome!
2. How the Terminology Entered the West

The beginnings of the usage of the term in the West is unclear, but some theories are that it entered Western thought via either Helena Blavatsky and the Theosophists or via the Tatar Invasions.

2.1. Helena Blavatsky and the Theosophists

Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophists brought many Hindu, Buddhist and Indian mores to the West, massively influencing Western occultism, magical thought, New Age religion and exposing the West to many ‘new’ religious ideas.

“The origin of the term Left-Hand Path can be traced back to the form of Indian religion called Tantra, where a distinction between various traditions is expressed in the terms Vamamarga [the left wat] and Dakshinamarga [right]. […] The popularisation of the terms can probably be attributed to Helena Petrovna Blavatsky of the Theosophical Society, who used them in her work The Secret Doctrine [1888].”
Kennet Granholm
In “Contemporary Religious Satanism” by Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2009)2
John Smulo adds:

“The use of this term in Tantra certainly predates its use in Satanism. However, the term LHP is used in a different sense in this context. Tantra practitioner Dinu Roman writes, “Tantra is also called Vama Marga, i.e. The Left Hand Path, due to the fact that women, who are of lunar influence, negative polarity or the left, play an essential role in this Science.”
Wild believes that Helena Blavatsky, co-founder of the Theosophical Society, was influential in the promotion of the term. He writes, “These self-denying paths are labelled the Right Hand Paths – a term that has its origins in the work of Blavatsky, who labelled magical practices that she liked as Right-Hand Path, and those she disliked as “immoral” as Left-Hand Path. Occultists after her picked up this habit, especially Crowley, who helped the word come into general ‘occult subculture’ use. The term is probably derived from Indo-European Tantric practices, which have filtered into the modern Western folklore survivals, an example is left as ‘sinister’ in heraldry (and handwriting).””
John Smulo
2.2. Tatar Invasions

There is an alternative belief that has some following in the various Satanic communities. That “it entered into the west – where black/white magic started to be used – due to the Shamanist Tatar invasions”Anon.

3. Left Handed People have been Shunned across the World

3.1. The Righteous Right, and the Satanic Left

Book CoverThe left has become nearly universally shunned. The right has been associated with all things good and pure whilst the left has been shunned as unholy, evil and relegated to inferiority [Gregory 1987, Gooch 1984]. Although Gooch says that “the left is universally unlucky in the classical world”, in “The Oxford Companion to the Mind” by Richard L. Gregory (1987) the author says that “this symbolism has pervaded nearly all cultures (except the Chinese)”.

“Ancient Greeks and Romans regarded the left side as inferior and profane, and in medieval times use of the left hand was associated with witchcraft” [Gregory 1987]. In New Zealand the Maoris considered the right side to be godly, representing life; the left side is dedicated to demons and the devil, representing death. Muslims believe good spirits speak into peoples’ right ears, but evil spirits speak into the left. In medieval Europe the Devil is drawn with its left hand outstretched. Amongst North American Indians the right represents bravery and virility but the left signifies death and burial. In China you must eat with the right hand. The Nuer people of Africa, the Dutch Indies local native populations and many other old cultures bind the left arm to put it out of use ‘for long periods’, especially in the young and with left-handed people. Throughout the African continent the right is good and the left is evil. In some places wives should never touch their husbands’ face with their left hand. The same patterns persist in South America: The right is good, is life, is divine but the left is female, bad, evil and morbid. Pythagoras set out in his Table of Opposites that the right hand side, male; lightness, was the opposite of the left hand side that was female, and darkness. Schools until recent decades used to “correct” (meaning: ‘with the right’) left-handed pupils.

Catholic Schools until surprisingly recently used to punish those who dared write left-handed because they were presupposed to be working for the devil – such children were “corrected” – a word which itself means “with the right”.

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The Left Hand Path

See William Butler Yeats’ Magical Golden Dawn Tools and Private Journals

yeats_elemental_weapons See William Butler Yeats’ Magical Golden Dawn Tools and Private Journals
Irish poet William Butler Yeats is perhaps the most well-known member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the influential secret magical society which originated in the late 19th century (and still exists in a number of forms today). Yeats was initiated into the order in 1890, taking on the magical name Demon est Deus Inversus—”the Devil is God Inverted.” As the order fell into chaos in the early 20th century, Yeats struggled to keep it intact, but he eventually left the offshoot Stella Matutina temple in 1921.

In 2009, noted Tarot author and scholar Mary K. Greer blogged about an exhibit at the National Library of Ireland showcasing a number of Yeats’s Golden Dawn tools and writings, including pages from his private magical journal. The exhibition is still online and I encourage you to view it here (although it is build in Flash and employs a clunky navigation system). Navigate to “Interactive” then click on “The Celtic Mystic” to see the showcase.

I also recently acquired a copy of the out-of-print and rare book, Yeats, the Tarot, and the Golden Dawn by scholar Kathleen Raine (The Dolmen Press, 1972), and was astonished to find it contained several black-and-white photos of Yeats’s hand-crafted elemental weapons (magical tools).

….yeats_elemental_weapons See William Butler Yeats’ Magical Golden Dawn Tools and Private Journals

And a beautiful gallery of pages from his Golden Dawn notebook can be found on Flckr, too.

The full story of Yeats and his involvement with magic and the Golden Dawn is covered in a number of books and online, but seeing these magical tools and drawings—carefully constructed and painted by the great poet himself—really brings the tradition alive.
yeats_elemental_weapons See William Butler Yeats’ Magical Golden Dawn Tools and Private Journals
See William Butler Yeats’s Magical Golden Dawn Tools and Private Journals


MI0000081711.jpg?partner=allrovi Zohar
The Zohar (Hebrew: זֹהַר, lit. “Splendor” or “Radiance”) is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.[1] It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism, mythical cosmogony, and mystical psychology. The Zohar contains a discussion of the nature of God, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, redemption, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and “true self” to “The Light of God”, and the relationship between the “universal energy” and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash, which elaborates on the Torah.

The Zohar is mostly written in what has been described as an exalted, eccentric style of Aramaic. Aramaic, the day-to-day language of Israel in the Second Temple period (539 BCE – 70 CE), was the original language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and is the main language of the Talmud.[2]

The Zohar first appeared in Spain in the 13th century, and was published by a Jewish writer named Moses de Leon. De Leon ascribed the work to Shimon bar Yochai (“Rashbi”), a rabbi of the 2nd century during the Roman persecution[3] who, according to Jewish legend,[4][5] hid in a cave for thirteen years studying the Torah and was inspired by the Prophet Elijah to write the Zohar. This accords with the traditional claim by adherents that Kabbalah is the concealed part of the Oral Torah.

While the traditional majority view in religious Judaism has been that the teachings of Kabbalah were revealed by God to Biblical figures such as Abraham and Moses and were then transmitted orally from the Biblical era until its redaction by Shimon bar Yochai, modern academic analysis of the Zohar, such as that by the 20th century religious historian Gershom Scholem, has theorized that De Leon was the actual author. The view of non-Orthodox Jewish denominations generally conforms to this latter view, and as such, most non-Orthodox Jews have long viewed the Zohar as pseudepigraphy and apocrypha while sometimes accepting that its contents may have meaning for modern Judaism. Jewish prayerbooks edited by non-Orthodox Jews may therefore contain excerpts from the Zohar and other kabbalistic works,[6] even if the editors do not literally believe that they are oral traditions from the time of Moses.


Children of Cain,Tubal Cain,the first Witches

? Children of Cain,Tubal Cain,the first Witches
You can hear all sorts of stuff about them.Children of Cain
Let’s think about Cain. According to the Bible, he was kicked out of Eden for having killed his brother.

Let’s think about Eden, allegedly located in Mesopotamia in present-day Iraq. But the birthplace of human civilisation was actually the Indus Valley in present-day Pakistan, and that loction also corresponds with the geography of Eden described in the Bible.

Who else got kicked out of the Indus Valley? The people of Sind or the Dravidians – they got kicked out by Aryan tribes invading from the Ukraine during the period between 2150 and 1250 BC, from whom most of the present-day inhabitants of India and indeed most Europeans are descended. Some of the people of Sind went to Southern India, where they still live and speak Dravidian, but most began a journey that took them to every corner of Europe and the world. Some of them have never stopped travelling – either literally or metaphorically, because they are always far from the home they were evicted from more than 3,000 years ago – and they are the Sinti or Roma.

Let’s think about the Old Testament. Who wrote it? People who wanted to rewrite history, a patriarchal priesthood. Who else wanted to rewrite history? The Aryans, who wanted to whitewash over the history and religion of the people who were there before them. The expulsion from Paradise, first of Adam and then of Cain, was a mythological metaphor to demonise the earlier culture. And so it has been ever since – that is the history of the world.

So, yes – in a very profound and well-hidden sense, the Roma are the descendants of Cain: Cain and indeed “sin” itself are mythological figures representing the ancient pre-Aryan culture from which civilisation, religion and the Roma sprang.

Of course, the Aryans wanted to claim civilisation and God for themselves, and it was they who instituted patriarchal culture in the Near East, from where it would eventually pursue the Roma all over the world. They also demonised Adam’s first wife Lilith, who unlike Eve wasn’t taken from Adam’s side, not to mention the female consort of God himself, Asherah.

The nails though, that has got to be a straightforward case of projection, because iron smithing was the reason for the Aryan conquest – iron weapons were just superior.

This demonisation of Sind was a prototype for the “history” of the world as we have been successfully persuaded of it … and the Aryan supremacists have never stopped persecuting those groups who stand as a living testimony to their foundation legends, their version of historical and religious truth.
So they claim that the witch cults,not Wicca,but the authentic Traditional Witchcraft was started by the movement,and spread world wide as they traveled.
If you do some research,some of the strongest witchcraft families share an ongoing linage to Tubal Cain.
Through portent, fate, and act of faith we became the lineage bearers of the Robert Cochrane tradition held in the covenant through the bequest of Evan John Jones. We are the People of Goda, Clan of Tubal Cain and remain a closed Initiatory group aligned to the Shadow Mysteries within the Luciferian stream dedicated to experiential gnosis. As students of arte we mediate the ancestral stream via teaching through practice with the sacred tenets of Clan of Tubal Cain – the convocation of Truth, Love and Beauty. The Word is thus manifest in deed and vision.

“A driving thirst for knowledge is the forerunner of wisdom. Knowledge is a state that all organic life posesses, wisdom is the reward of the spirit, gained in the search for knowledge. Truth is variable – what is true now, will not be true tomorrow, since the temporal truths are dependent upon ethics and social mores – therefore wisdom is possibly eternal Truth, untouched by man’s condition. So we must come to the heart of the People, a belief that is based upon Eternity, and not upon social needs or pressures – the ‘witch’ belief then is concerned with wisdom, our true name, then is the wise people and wisdom is our aim.”

Robert Cochrane 1931-1966

This is the official web presence of the authorised legacy holders from Evan John Jones and Robert Cochrane.

So even as the witches change and adapt to knew locations,they take the history with them.
Some of the outer actions may have changed,Christianity,Islam,and many other changes away from the original beliefs that they shared,that was a cross between Zoroastrianism,and Hindu beliefs,the first religion of the world,the Mother Goddess worship.

But all in all,it is one of the most important stories in the world that most folk’s are not aware of.

Gypsy Origin of Witchcraft, Shamanism and Sorcery

gypsy-corot Gypsy Origin of Witchcraft, Shamanism and Sorcery
(Editor’s note – This work is presented for historical interest. It is from a book published in 1891, and one of the first things the modern reader will find himself saying when reading this is, “Thank God our attitudes and beliefs toward gypsies (now often referred to as Roma) have progressed since this dark time.” It is probably not altogether inappropriate to remind ourselves that such prejudice toward gypsies contributed to the Gypsy Holocaust, during which Nazis practiced genocide against the Roma precisely as they did against Jews. On a more positive note, the author was ahead of his time in stating that gypsies emigrated from India, and in his hypothesis that gypsy culture may have preserved a pre-Aryan set of Indian beliefs and customs, including those related to witchcraft, shamanism, and sorcery.)

As their peculiar perfume is the chief association with spices, so sorcery is allied in every memory to gypsies. And as it has not escaped many poets that there is something more strangely sweet and mysterious in the scent of cloves than in that of flowers, so the attribute of inherited magic power adds to the romance of these picturesque wanderers. Both the spices and the Romany come from the far East–the fatherland of divination and enchantment. The latter have been traced with tolerable accuracy, If we admit their affinity with the Indian Dom and Domar, back to the threshold of history, or well-nigh into prehistoric times, and in all ages they, or their women, have been engaged, as if by elfish instinct, in selling enchantments, peddling prophecies and palmistry, and dealing with the devil generally ill a small retail way. As it was of old so it is to-day–

Ki shan i Romani–
Adoi san’ i chov’hani.

(Wherever gypsies go,
There the witches are, we know.)

It is no great problem ill ethnology or anthropology as to how gypsies became fortune-tellers. We may find a very curious illustration of it in the wren. This is apparently as humble, modest, prosaic little fowl as exists, and as far from mystery and wickedness as an old hen. But the ornithologists of the olden time, and the myth-makers, and the gypsies who lurked and lived in the forest, knew better. They saw how this bright-eyed, strange little creature in her elfish way slipped in and out of hollow trees and wood shade into sunlight, and anon was gone, no man knew whither, and so they knew that it was an uncanny creature, and told wonderful tales of its deeds in human form, and to-day it is called by gypsies in Germany, as in England, the witch-bird, or more briefly, chorihani, “the witch.”
gypsy-corot Gypsy Origin of Witchcraft, Shamanism and Sorcery
Just so the gypsies themselves, with their glittering Indian eyes, slipping like the wren in and out of the shadow of the Unknown, and anon away and invisible, won for themselves the name which now they wear. Wherever Shamanism, or the sorcery which is based on exorcising or commanding spirits, exists, its professors from leading strange lives, or from solitude or wandering, become strange and wild-looking. When men have this appearance people associate with it mysterious power. This is the case in Tartary, Africa, among the Eskimo, Lapps, or Red Indians, with all of whom the sorcerer, voodoo or medaolin, has the eye of the “fascinator,” glittering and cold as that of a serpent.

So the gypsies, from the mere fact of being wanderers and out-of-doors livers in wild places, became wild-looking, and when asked if they did not associate with the devils who dwell in the desert places, admitted the soft impeachment, and being further questioned as to whether their friends the devils, fairies, elves, and goblins had not taught them how to tell the future, they pleaded guilty, and finding that it paid well, went to work in their small way to improve their “science,” and particularly their pecuniary resources. It was an easy calling; it required no property or properties, neither capital nor capitol, shiners nor shrines, wherein to work the oracle. And as I believe that a company of children left entirely to themselves would form and grow up with a language which in a very few years would be spoken fluently, so I am certain that the shades of night, and fear, pain, and lightning and mystery would produce in the same time conceptions of dreaded beings, resulting first in demonology and then in the fancied art of driving devils away.

For out of my own childish experiences and memories I retain with absolute accuracy material enough to declare that without any aid from other people the youthful mind forms for itself strange and seemingly supernatural phenomena. A tree or bush waving in the night breeze by moonlight is perhaps mistaken for a great man, the mere repetition of the sight or of its memory make it a personal reality. Once when I was a child powerful doses of quinine caused a peculiar throb in my ear which I for some time believed was the sound of somebody continually walking upstairs. Very young children sometimes imagine invisible playmates or companions talk with them, and actually believe that the unseen talk to them in return. I myself knew a small boy who had, as he sincerely believed, such a companion, whom he called Bill, and when he could not understand his lessons he consulted the mysterious William, who explained them to him. There are children who, by the voluntary or involuntary exercise of visual perception or volitional eye-memory, reproduce or create images which they imagine to be real, and this faculty is much commoner than is supposed. In fact I believe that where it exists in most remarkable degrees the adults to whom the children describe their visions dismiss them as “fancies” or falsehoods.

Even in the very extraordinary cases recorded by Professor Hale, in which little children formed for themselves spontaneously a language in which they conversed fluently, neither their parents nor anybody else appears to have taken the least interest in the matter. However, the fact being that babes can form for themselves supernatural conceptions and embryo mythologies, and as they always do attribute to strange or terrible-looking persons power which the latter do not possess, it is easy, without going further, to understand why a wild Indian gypsy, with eyes like a demon when excited, and unearthly-looking at his calmest, should have been supposed to be a sorcerer by credulous child-like villagers. All of this I believe might have taken place, or really did take place, in the very dawn of man’s existence as a rational creature–that as soon as “the frontal convolution of the brain which monkeys do not possess,” had begun with the “genial tubercule,” essential to language, to develop itself, then also certain other convolutions and tubercules, not as yet discovered, but which ad interim I will call “the ghost-making,” began to act. “Genial,” they certainly were not–little joy and much sorrow has man got out of his spectro-facient apparatus–perhaps if it and talk are correlative he might as well, many a time, have been better off if he were dumb.

So out of the earliest time, in the very two o’clock of a misty morning in history, man came forth believing in non-existent terrors and evils as soon as he could talk, and talking about them as fast as he formed them. Long before the conception of anything good or beneficent, or of a Heavenly Father or benevolent angels came to him, he was scared with nightmares and spirits of death and darkness, hell, hunger, torture, and terror. We all know how difficult it is for many people when some one dies out of a household to get over the involuntary feeling that we shall unexpectedly meet the departed in the usual haunts. In almost every family there is a record how some one has “heard a voice they cannot hear,” or the dead speaking in the familiar tones. Hence the belief in ghosts, as soon as men began to care for death at all, or to miss those who had gone. So first of all came terrors and specters, or revenants, and from setting out food for the latter. which was the most obvious and childlike manner to please them, grew sacrifices to evil spirits, and finally the whole system of sacrifice in all its elaboration.

It may therefore be concluded that as soon as man began to think and speak and fear the mysterious, he also began to appease ghosts and bugbears by sacrifices. Then there sprung up at once–quite as early–the magus, or the cleverer man, who had the wit to do the sacrificing and eat the meats sacrificed, and explain that he had arranged it all privately with the dead and the devils. He knew all about them, and he could drive them away. This was the Shaman. He seems to have had a Tartar-Mongol-mongrel-Turanian origin, somewhere in Central Asia, and to have spread with his magic drum, and songs, and stinking smoke, exorcising his fiends all over the face of the earth, even as his descendant, General Booth, with his “devil-drivers” is doing at the present day. But the earliest authentic records of Shamanism are to be found in the Accadian, proto-Chaldean and Babylon records. According to it all diseases whatever, as well as all disasters, were directly the work of evil spirits, which were to be driven away by songs of exorcism, burning of perfumes or evil-smelling drugs, and performing ceremonies, many of which, with scraps of the exorcisms are found in familiar use here and there at the present day. Most important of all in it was the extraordinary influence of the Shaman himself on his patient, for he made the one acted on sleep or wake, freed him from many apparently dire disorders in a minute, among others of epilepsies which were believed to be caused by devils dwelling in man–the nearest and latest explanation of which magic power is given in that very remarkable book, “Psycho-Therapeutics, or Treatment by Sleep and Suggestion,” by C. LLOYD TUCKEY, M.D. (London: Bailliere and Co., 1889), which I commend to all persons interested in ethnology as casting light on some of the most interesting and perplexing problems of humanity, and especially of “magic.”

It would seem, at least among the Laplanders, Finns, Eskimo, and Red Indians, that the first stage of Shamanism was a very horrible witchcraft, practiced chiefly by women, in which attempts were made to conciliate the evil spirits; the means employed embracing everything which could revolt and startle barbarous men. Thus fragments of dead bodies and poison, and unheard-of terrors and crimes formed its basis. I think it very probable that this was the primitive religion among savages everywhere. An immense amount of it in its vilest conceivable forms still exists among negroes as Voodoo.

After a time this primitive witchcraft or voodoo had its reformers–probably brave and shrewd men, who conjectured that the powers of evil might be “exploited” to advantage. There is great confusion and little knowledge as yet as regards primitive man, but till we know better we may roughly assume that witch-voodoo was the religion of the people of the Paleolithic period, if they could talk at all, since language is denied to the men of the Neanderthal, Canstadt, Egnisheim, and Podhava type. All that we can declare with some certainty is that we find the advanced Shamanism the religion of the early Turanian races, among whose descendants, and other people allied to them, it exists to this day. The grandest incident in the history of humanity is the appearance of the Man of Cro-Magnon. He it was who founded what M. DE QUATREFAGES calls “a magnificent race,” probably one which speedily developed a high civilization, and a refined religion. But the old Shamanism with its amulets, exorcisms, and smoke, its noises, more or less musical, of drums and enchanted bells, and its main belief that all the ills of life came from the action of evil spirits, was deeply based among the inferior races and the inferior scions of the Cro-Magnon stock clung to it in forms more or less modified. just as the earlier witchcraft, or the worship and conciliation of evil, overlapped in many places the newer Shamanism, so the latter overlapped the beautiful Nature-worship of the early Aryans, the stately monotheism of the Shemites, and the other more advanced or ingenious developments of the idea of a creative cause.

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Gypsy Origin of Witchcraft, Shamanism and Sorcery